Documenting Ballerina Code

Ballerina has a built-in Ballerina Flavored Markdown (BFM) documentation framework named Docerina. The documentation framework allows you to write unstructured documents with a bit of structure to enable generating HTML content as API documentation.

Generating Documentation for Modules

Developers can write the documentation inline with the Ballerina source code using the lightweight markdown markup language. They can document special constructs such as parameters, return values, fields, etc. within the code using documentation attributes. Once the code is documented, developers can generate a basic HTML version of their Ballerina modules using the ballerina doc command. Developers are encouraged to have their custom themes and styles, to have a standard presentation of their Ballerina documentation.

Ballerina documentation design and usage is aligned with project and module semantics of Ballerina. You can generate documentation for modules using the ballerina doc command.

  • Ballerina programmers can place the documentation inline with the source code using the documentation syntax.
  • Ballerina type definitions, global variables, annotations, listeners, etc. can be documented using the documentation syntax.
  • Fields, parameters, return values, etc. can be marked using documentation attributes.
  • HTML documents can be generated using the ballerina doc command for each Ballerina module and if you have custom handlebars templates, you can use them to generate the HTMLs.

Writing Ballerina Documentation

Ballerina Flavored Markdown documentation is a first class syntax in the Ballerina language. The # at the beginning of a line denotes a line of documentation. If necessary, you can have multiple lines of documentation, which you can group together.

# <documentation line 1>
# <documentation line 2>
# ...

When you write documentation, you can use the markdown documentation syntax given above. For example:

# Provides the HTTP actions for interacting with an HTTP server. Apart from the standard 
# HTTP methods, `forward()` and `execute()` functions are provided.
# ...

The supported structure of documentation syntax is as follows:

# <description_line_1>
# <description_line_2>
# ...
# + <parameter_name/field_name> - <description_line_1>
#                                 <description_line_2>
# ...
# + <parameter_name/field_name> - <description_line_1>
#                                 <description_line_2>
# ...
# + return - <return_parameter_description_line_1>
#            <return_parameter_description_line_2>

Tip: Always, add a full stop at the end of a function description. However, as a best practice, omit the full stop if you have only one sentence in the parameter and return type descriptions. If there are multiple sentences for a parameter or return type description, add the full stop at the end of the first sentence and in the succeding ones. For example,

# Description for the function.
#
# + i - One sentence only
# + s - Sentence one. Sentence two.
# + return - Return description
public function foo(int i, string s) returns boolean {
    return true;
}

Sample Usage

# Submits an HTTP request to a service with the specified HTTP verb.
# The `submit()` function does not give out a `Response` as the result,
# rather it returns an `HttpFuture`, which can be used to do further 
# interactions with the endpoint.
#
# Example:
# ```ballerina
# HttpFuture future = myMsg.submit("GET", "/test", req);
# ```
#
# + httpVerb - The HTTP verb value
# + path - The resource path
# + request - An HTTP outbound request message
# + return - An `HttpFuture` that represents an asynchronous service invocation 
#            or an `error` if the submission fails
public function submit(@sensitive string httpVerb, string path, Request request) returns HttpFuture|error;

Documenting a Module

A Ballerina module can have a Module.md file, which describes the module and its usage.

A typical project structure of a Ballerina project is like this:

/
  Ballerina.toml       # Configuration that defines project intent
    src
      module1/             # The source in this directory will be named “<org-name>/module1”
        Module.md          # Optional, contains descriptive metadata for display at
                           # Ballerina Central
        *.bal
        [tests/]           # Module-specific unit and integration tests
        [resources/]       # Module-specific resources

      modules.can.include.dots.in.dir.name/
        Module.md
        *.bal
        [tests/]
        [resources/]

  [resources/]         # Resources included with every module in the project

  target/              # Compiled executables and other artifacts end up here

The ballerina doc command will read the Module.md and prepend it to the generated HTML file.

Check HTTP module documentation for sample HTML that has Module.md content at the top, followed by the other module constructs.

Generating Ballerina Documentation

Ballerina provides a doc command, which can be executed against a given Ballerina project. This command will result in generating the Ballerina documentation as HTML files, for all the modules in the project.

First, let’s create a new Ballerina project:

$ ballerina new myproject
Created new Ballerina project at myproject

Next, move into the project directory and execute ballerina add <module-name> to add a new Ballerina module.

$ cd myproject/
$ ballerina add math
Added new ballerina module at 'src/math'
$ ballerina add world
Added new ballerina module at 'src/world'

Now, let’s add a function to the math module to be documented. Copy and paste the following code in to the myproject/src/math/main.bal file.

# Calculates the value of the 'a' raised to the power of 'b'.
# ```ballerina
# float aPowerB = math:pow(3.2, 2.4);
# ```
# 
# + a - Base value
# + b - Exponential value
# + return - Calculated exponential value
public isolated function pow(float a, float b) returns float {
    return 0;
}

Add the follwoing class definition to the world module. Copy and paste the following code in to the myproject/src/world/main.bal/ file.

# Represents a person object.
#
# + name - Name of the person
# + age - Age of the person in years
# + address - Address of the person
# + wealth - Account balance of the person
public class Person {
    public string name = "";
    public int age;
    public string address;
    public float wealth = 0;

    # Gets invoked to initialize the `Person` object.
    #
    # + name - Name of the person for the constructor
    # + age - Age of the person for the constructor
    public function init(string name, int age) {
    }

    # Get the address of the person.
    #
    # + return - New address of the person
    public function getAddress() returns string {
        return self.address ;
    }

    # Add wealth of the person.
    #
    # + amt - Amount to be added
    # + rate - Interest rate
    public function addWealth(int[] amt, float rate=1.5) {
    }
}

Now, let’s generate documentation of the project:

$ ballerina doc -a

Output:

Compiling source
        foo/math:0.1.0
        foo/world:0.1.0

Generating API Documentation
        target/apidocs

target/apidocs/ folder would contain following;

$ ls target/apidocs/
index.html  math  world  ...
  • index.html - contains an index page of all the modules in the Ballerina project
  • math - contains the documentation of the module named math
  • world - contains the documentation of the module named world

If you want to generate documentation for a selected Ballerina module, then you can execute the following command from the Ballerina project root directory:

$ ballerina doc <module_name>

For other options, run ballerina doc --help.